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gra‧cious / ˈɡreɪʃəs / adjective

1 behaving in a polite, kind, and generous way, especially to people of a lower rank :

Sibyl was the most gracious, helpful, and generous person to work with.

a gracious apology

2 having the kind of expensive style, comfort, and beauty that only rich people can afford :

a gracious manor house

a magazine about gracious living

3 gracious (me)!/good gracious!/goodness gracious! old-fashioned used to express surprise or to emphasize ‘yes’ or ‘no’ :

Good gracious! What on earth has happened to your feet?

‘Did you ever go back?’ ‘Good gracious, no.’

4 a gracious act by or gift from God is kind and forgiving

5 [ only before noun ] used as a polite way of describing a royal person :

our gracious Queen

graciously adverb

graciousness noun [ uncountable ]

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seed 1 S3 W3 / siːd / noun

 

1 plants

a) [ uncountable and countable ] a small hard object produced by plants, from which a new plant of the same kind grows :

a packet of sunflower seeds

plant/sow seeds (= put them in the soil )

Sow the seeds one inch deep in the soil.

grow something from seed

We grew all our tomatoes from seed.

b) [ uncountable ] a quantity of seeds :

Some of the poorest farmers don’t have enough money to buy seed.

2 in fruit [ countable ] American English one of the small hard objects in a fruit such as an apple or orange, from which new fruit trees grow SYN pip British English

3 seeds of something written something that makes a new situation start to grow and develop

seeds of change/victory

The seeds of change in Eastern Europe were beginning to emerge.

seeds of doubt/disaster/destruction etc (= something which makes a bad feeling or situation develop )

Something Lucy said began to sow seeds of doubt in his mind.

4 go/run to seed

a) if a plant or vegetable goes or runs to seed, it starts producing flowers and seeds as well as leaves

b) if someone or something goes or runs to seed, they become less attractive or good, especially because they are getting old and have not been properly looked after :

The old central bus station is going to seed.

5 number one/two/three etc seed [ countable ] a player or team in a competition that is given a particular position, according to how likely they are to win :

He’s been top seed for the past two years.

6 *** [ uncountable ] biblical semen or sperm – often used humorously

7 family [ uncountable ] biblical the group of people who have a particular person as their father, grandfather etc, especially when they form a particular race

COLLOCATIONS

verbs

plant/sow seeds (= put them in the soil ) Sow the seeds in trays or pots.

grow something from seed (= grow a plant from a seed rather than buying it as a small plant ) You can grow most vegetables from seed.

seeds germinate (= start to grow ) The seeds should start to germinate after a few days.

NOUN + seed

flower/sunflower/tomato etc seeds I bought a packet of poppy seeds.

grass seed You can sprinkle grass seed over any gaps in the lawn.

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dam‧age 1 S3 W2 / ˈdæmɪdʒ / noun

 

1 physical harm [ uncountable ] physical harm that is done to something or to a part of someone’s body, so that it is broken or injured

damage to

damage to property

These chemicals have been found to cause serious environmental damage.

There may be permanent brain damage. brain .

His eyesight suffered irreparable damage.

2 emotional harm [ uncountable ] harm caused to someone’s emotions or mind :

The death of a parent can cause long-lasting psychological damage .

3 bad effect [ uncountable ] a bad effect on something

damage to

The damage to his reputation was considerable.

The closure of the factory will cause severe damage to the local economy.

damage limitation/control

the attempts at political damage control during the scandal

4 damages [ plural ] law money that a court orders someone to pay to someone else as a punishment for harming them or their property compensation :

The court awarded him £15,000 in damages.

5 the damage is done used to say that something bad has happened which makes it impossible to go back to the way things were before it happened :

She immediately apologized, but the damage was done.

6 what’s the damage? spoken used humorously to ask how much you have to pay for something

COLLOCATIONS

verbs

do damage Too much sun can do severe damage to your skin.

cause damage We surveyed the damage caused by the bomb.

suffer/sustain damage formal She has suffered damage to her hearing.

repair the damage The cost of repairing the damage could be around £300 million.

prevent/avoid damage Young trees need protecting to prevent damage from the wind.

ADJECTIVES/NOUN + damage

serious/severe The earthquake caused severe damage to a number of buildings.

extensive/widespread (= covering a large area ) Because of the size of the bomb, the damage was extensive.

permanent/irreparable/irreversible damage (= that cannot be repaired ) By smoking for so long, she may have suffered irreversible damage to her health.

minor damage Fortunately, the fire caused only minor damage.

physical damage There is considerable evidence that the drug can cause physical damage.

structural damage (= to the structure of a building ) The building was checked for structural damage.

environmental damage The programme will concentrate on reducing environmental damage and pollution.

fire/storm/flood etc damage (= caused by fire, storm, flood etc ) The campsite suffered extensive flood damage.

brain/liver/nerve etc damage If you drink a lot of alcohol it can cause liver damage.

accidental damage (= caused by an accident ) The insurance covers you for accidental damage to your possessions while you are on holiday.

criminal damage (= caused by someone committing a crime ) The boy was charged with criminal damage after setting fire to his girlfriend’s house.

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lash 1 / læʃ / verb

1 tie [ transitive always + adverb/preposition ] to tie something tightly to something else with a rope SYN bind lash something to something The oars were lashed to the sides of the boat.

2 wind/rain/sea [ intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive ] if the wind, sea etc lashes something, it hits it with violent force : Giant waves lashed the sea wall.

lash against/down/across The wind lashed violently against the door.

3 hit [ transitive ] to hit a person or animal very hard with a whip, stick etc : Oliver lashed the horses to go faster.

4 tail [ intransitive and transitive ] if an animal lashes its tail, or if its tail lashes, it moves it from side to side quickly and strongly, especially because it is angry

5 criticize [ intransitive and transitive ] to criticize someone angrily – used especially in newspapers : Democrats lashed Republican plans, calling them extreme.

lash back Gallins lashed back at those who accused him of corruption.

lash out phrasal verb

1 to suddenly speak angrily to someone or criticize someone angrily lash out at Olson lashed out at the media.

2 to try to hit someone with a series of violent uncontrolled movements lash out at She would suddenly lash out at other children.

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la‧bor‧a‧tory W3 / ˈbɒrətri $ ˈlæbrətɔːri / noun ( plural laboratories ) [ countable ]

 

a special room or building in which a scientist does tests or prepares substances :

a research laboratory

laboratory tests/experiments/studies

tests on laboratory animals

language laboratory

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