tanha yeghaneh 22 اشتراک گذاری ارسال شده در 25 مهر، ۱۳۹۲ سلام. کسی میتونه این جملاتو برام ترجمه کنه؟؟؟ 1. Forthcoming article accepted for publication in Communications of the ACM 2. In each group, there may be a leader who issues commands and provides steering mechanisms to the group, as well as gatekeepers who ensure that information and drugs flow effectively to and from other groups. 3. On one hand, they have large volumes of “raw data” collected from multiple sources: phone records, bank accounts and transactions, vehicle sales and registration records, surveillance reports, etc. 4. Currently, criminal network analysis is primarily a manual process that consumes much human time and efforts, thus has limited applicability to crime investigation. 5. We also report some data mining projects for criminal network analysis in the COPLINK research, which is the NIJ- and NSF- funded research for management of law enforcement knowledge. 6. Multiple data records could make a single criminal to appear to be different individuals 7. For example, to improve data correctness and consistency, many heuristics are employed in the FinCEN system at the U.S. Department of the Treasury to disambiguate and consolidate financial transactions into uniquely identified individuals in the system 8. Recently, two second-generation network analysis approaches have been developed by the COPLINK research and its co-developer, the Knowledge Computing Corporation. 9. Sophisticated structural analysis tools are needed to go from merely drawing networks to mining large volumes of data to discover useful knowledge about the structure and organization of criminal networks. 10. Clear understanding of these structural properties of a criminal network may help analysts target critical network members for removal or surveillance, and locate network vulnerabilities where disruptive actions can be effective. 11. In a network with undirected links, for example, the link density between two subgroups i and j can be calculated by , where mij is the actual number of links between subgroups i and j; ni and nj represent the number of nodes within subgroups i and j, respectively. 12. Centrality deals with the roles of individuals in a network. Several centrality measures, such as degree, betweenness, and closeness can suggest the importance of a node in a network . The degree of a particular node is its number of links; its betweenness is the number of geodesics (shortest paths between any two nodes) passing through it; and its closeness is the sum of all the geodesics between the particular node and every other node in the network. An individual’s having a high degree, for instance, may imply his leadership; whereas an individual with a high betweenness may be a gatekeeper in the network. Baker and Faulkner  employed these three measures, especially degree, to find the central individuals in a price-fixing conspiracy network in the electrical equipment industry. Krebs  found that in the network consisting of the 19 hijackers, Mohamed Atta scored the highest on degree and closeness, but not on betweenness. 13. allocating an appropriate amount of police effort to prevent a crime’s taking place, or ensuring a police presence when the crime is carried out. 14. In the user study our domain expert evaluated the paths identified automatically and those identified manually. He considered the former to be useful around 70% of time and the latter to be useful around only 30% of time. 15. No significant improvement in effectiveness was present (t = 1.80, p > 0.05), probably due to the small sizes and relatively simple structures of the testing networks 2 نقل قول لینک به دیدگاه
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